TEMPO.CO, Yogyakarta - Lecturer at the Department of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Sri Wiyanti Eddyono, said that organized crime of human trafficking is a very serious problem. However, the handling of human trafficking cases is considered slow.
Sri Wiyanti suspects that one of the reasons is because the village government officials where the case occurred support the practice of human trafficking. For example, there is a falsification of the age of migrant workers who are under 18 to become 21 years old so they can go to work.
In addition, he also observed many cases of human trafficking that were not completed from a legal standpoint. Sri Wiyanti referring to the data from the Indonesian National Police, there were 221 cases of human trafficking that were investigated. Of the 221 cases, only 165 cases were prosecuted by law. The rest are thought to have gone through a mediation process. The completion of the mediation process, according to him, means that law enforcers ignore the sanctions in the Law on Trafficking in Persons.
Sri Wiyanti conducted research in 2009 to see how migrant worker recruiters work. They mostly invite people they know, for example relatives, relatives, neighbors and friends. "The recruiter's pattern is similar to the way multilevel marketing works, which leads to fraud," said Sri Wiyanti, Saturday, November 26, 2016.
According to him, the pattern of recruitment of victims of trafficking is still the same from year to year. Trafficking syndicate networks often target girls under the age of 18. The girls then received a series of threats or intimidation to sexual exploitation.
The researcher at the Center for Gender, Peace and Security Studies at Monash University, Australia, emphasized that the government needs to be serious about exposing human trafficking syndicates. Because, this crime continues to be repeated. He gave an example of the number of coffins containing the bodies of migrant workers that were sent to Indonesia.
Provision of migrant workers
The government, he said, should give serious attention to areas that are pockets of human trafficking. The government should provide provision for migrant workers to work safely, how to store their documents safely when working abroad. Unfortunately, so far, the human resources in the villages have not had the capacity to provide training to migrant workers. "So far, the provision is just a formality regarding technical work," he said.
Apart from that, the government, he said, must be extra strict in supervising the Indonesian Manpower Service Providers. Sri said that the practice of trafficking in persons affects migrant workers whose documents were falsified. To tackle the crime, the related Ministries also need to join hands. For example, the Ministry of Women's Empowerment together with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the National Agency for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (BNP2TKI).
Ratri, a pseudonym, a migrant worker broker in Magelang, said there was no need to use a recommendation letter from the Manpower Office to apply for the passport of a prospective Indonesian worker, who departs through the PJTKI where he works. The processing of visiting passports can be arranged through a bureau that is connected to officers at the Class II Immigration Office in Wonosobo, Central Java.
It's just that, to apply for a passport, the migrant worker must pay Rp 700 thousand. If the migrant workers' documents are incomplete, for example they do not have a family card, the PJTKI can arrange them. To take care of all the needs of each TKI, it costs Rp. 6-7 million.
Ratri's remarks were the same as those of victims of human trafficking, namely Maimunah, who had worked in Malaysia four years ago. According to Maemunah, managing a passport for tourist visits at the Wonosobo Class II Immigration Office is easy. He did not need to attach a recommendation letter from the Manpower Office at that time. "There is absolutely no recommendation letter. The passport is finished in three days, ”said Maimunah.
An interviewer at the Class II Immigration Office, Wonosobo, Lambang Argopulung denied that they could arrange for a migrant worker passport without a recommendation letter from the Manpower Office. To Tempo, Lambang showed the documents that must be fulfilled when someone wants to work as a TKI. The conditions are that PJTKIs that process TKI passports must attach a recommendation letter issued by the provincial or district / city Manpower Office.
Lambang exemplifies a passport application letter from a PJTKI which attaches a recommendation letter signed by the Banjarnegara Regency Social and Manpower Office official. "If there is a recommendation letter from the Manpower Office, it can be processed further," said Lambang when he was in Yogyakarta, Sunday, November 27, 2016.
According to him, the cost of processing passports for migrant workers using the biometric-based passport system technology is Rp. 55 thousand. For a 24-page passport extension (passport has expired) for TKI who have worked abroad the fee is IDR 155 thousand. Meanwhile, the cost of a 48-page passport costs IDR 355 thousand. “The fees for processing passports are transferred directly to the bank. We give receipts, "said Lambang.
Requirements for a passport for migrant workers other than a recommendation letter from the Manpower Office are an identity card, family card, birth certificate, and certificate. Lambang said there was an interview process with the person applying for a passport to find out the purpose of making the passport. The officer, he said, checks the correctness of the identity or data of the person applying for the passport. For example, if the identity changes, the officer will check it.
If the file or document is invalid, the officer will refuse to make a passport. He pointed out that someone's passport was lost and he applied for a passport. That person must attach a passport loss certificate from the police. "Indeed, we rejected them because their files did not meet the requirements. This November, there were five people who submitted, "he said. (Shinta Maharani)
This article was published in Tempo.co, Sunday, November 27, 2016