- Kes Tuturoong
Many cases of corruption are carried out by state officials by using loopholes in the provision of goods and services (PBJ), starting with arranged tenders to inflating project funds. Corruption data in Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW) is taken from data from the KPK, Police, and Attorney General's Office - unfortunately the Police and the prosecutor's office have never released data on the handling of corruption cases in their institutions. From all these data, about one third of corruption cases are related to the procurement of goods and services. The rate of deviation in PBJ is very high, KPK data alone in the last decade 44% corruption cases are PBJ cases.
Since 2008 ICW has finally paid more attention to the open PBJ system, especially the implementation of e-procurement (eproc). Eproc is the procurement of goods and services electronically. Now we can access this eproc online at the Electronic Procurement Service (LPSE) in each region. Through this eproc, explanations about government projects can be monitored easily by the 4 Division of the Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW) campaign compared to the old system. We can easily find out who is involved in the tender, the contract value, etc.
ICW then collaborated with the Government Goods / Services Procurement Policy Agency (LKPP) to create a special portal to collect tenders spread across the regional LPSE, to make it easier to supervise these government projects. The portal, called opentender.net, is also accompanied by a number or score indicating the vulnerability of a project. This website was launched in 2013, the data available here dates back to 2008, when eproc was implemented in Indonesia.
The calculation of the score carried out at opentender.net is the calculation of risk figures using the Potential Fraud Analysis method. This method began to be used and developed in years
2012. With this method, it will be seen which projects and / or areas have high potential in the PBJ system. In addition, this site also displays data from ministerial and institutional entities.
Several indicators are used in the assessment method on opentender.net:
- Cost: value of contract (contract value).
- Saving: value of contract againts own estimation value. The contract value is compared to the Self-Estimate Price to assess the efficiency of the contract.
- Participation: number of tender participants and level of competition. Number of tender participants.
- Monopoly: number of contracts won by the winning company. The number of contracts won by one particular participant.
- Scheduling: time of construction project completion, especially for construction projects carried out at the end of the year which ICW deems the potential for fraud is higher.
The risk score is calculated based on these indicators. Each indicator has a maximum risk point of 4, so if a project has a high risk, it will get 20 points. Nationally, on opentender.net, Papua is the province with the highest risk score. This indicates a higher potential for deviation, and this potential data can be followed up with investigations. However, if selected based on the number of projects, the province with the highest rank is West Java.
If this data can be sorted based on state institutions, data in opentender, net shows the Police are more at risk. Meanwhile, based on the largest number of projects is the Department of Transportation. And many more variations of data sorting on opentender.net. Now that there are 627 LPSE in Indonesia, it will take time for LKPP to collect them and enter them into ICW which then calculates the scores of all these data.
Several cases traced from eproc showed an association between risk score and deviation. For example the case of the procurement of Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) in DKI Jakarta. In the 2014 eproc data on opentender.net there are 52 UPS procurement projects, seven of which are included in the Top-10 potential problem projects with a score of 19-20.
Another case in another province that fits the opentender.net score analysis is the case for the procurement of medical devices in Banten Province, on opentender.net. The procurement of medical devices is the project that most populates the Top-10 with high potential risks. Whereas in the ministry, what was successfully revealed were the case of the procurement of hajj catering at the ministry of religion, and the e-KTP case at the ministry of interior. Some of these cases can be examples of how to detect fraud in PBJ by analyzing eproc data.
ICW has also engaged with several parties, one of which is the DKI Jakarta Government. This collaboration is in the form of the preparation of the Procurement Service Unit (ULP) and the Gratification Control Unit (UPG). In addition, ICW also involves CSOs (Civil Society Organizations) or local partners in the regions so that this oversight function can be broader.