Residents of Pagesangan Village, Jambangan District, Surabaya, East Java limited access to and from the area after ten residents tested positive for Covid-19. The sticky image on a private vehicle becomes a marker for controlling mobilization.
Pagesangan Kelurahan is included as one of the Tangguh Wani Jogo Suroboyo Villages - a community movement launched by the Mayor of Surabaya, Tri Rismaharini in mid-June. Of the 350 villages targeted by the regional government, not many residents have implemented concrete movements to curb the spread of the corona virus. A number of residential settlements that embed tough village banners did not apply health protocols.
Secretary of Kampung Tangguh Wani Jogo Suroboyo, Akhmad Agussairi, is targeting zero cases in Pagesangan. Residents who tested positive, according to him, must carry out independent isolation in their respective homes. During the 14-day quarantine, residents independently help provide basic necessities.
"There are 6 neighborhood units (RT) here. The funds collected will then be arranged to provide food for residents who are conducting independent isolation and have not been registered with the social service. We send it once a day, ”said Agus.
To ensure that every process runs smoothly, four teams are formed. Each team is in charge of health (Healthy Wani), well-being (Wani Sejahtera), socialization (Wani Ngandani) and guarding (Wani Jogo).
Airlangga University epidemiologist Windhu Purnomo appreciates the existence of Kampung Tangguh. However, according to him, it is much more important if Surabaya determines the status of health control. This is because after leaving the transitional period on June 21, Surabaya does not have a status that can be used as an excuse to control the movement of citizens.
"Surabaya is still in transition or new normal (New habit adaptation -red)? ”asked Windhu when interviewed by Jaring.id Monday, June 29, 2020.
The absence of status also occurs in Gresik and Sidoarjo, the two regions that have contributed the most positive cases of corona in East Java. Even though the determination of this status, said Windhu, is important given the growth of the positive corona curve in Greater Surabaya is getting tapered. As of Thursday, July 30, 2020, there were 21,484 positive cases in East Java. Of that number, 1,663 people were declared dead. As for Surabaya, the number of patients who tested positive for Covid-19 reached 8,420 people.
Previously, the Municipal Governments of Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidoarjo did not agree to extend the period of large-scale social restrictions (PSBB). This easing is claimed to be useful for encouraging the economy of the community which has deteriorated during the pandemic.
According to Windhu, during the implementation of the PSBB, his party periodically provided recommendations to the regional governments of Surabaya Raya and Malang Raya. As for now, epidemiologists only provide an overview in the field through research and survey results to be taken into consideration. "Regarding the decision, it is in the hands of the city / regency and provincial governments," said the Head of the Department of Biostatistics and Population, Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya.
Windhu considers that the local government is not serious about implementing all the recommendations given. As a result, academics are often the target of the high number of positive cases of Covid-19 in East Java and this has a negative impact on the development of science. "I want to save the academic team, rather than becoming a snub because of the recommendations given," he said.
Contacted separately, Deputy Head of Public Relations of the Surabaya City Covid-19 Task Force, M. Fikser, said that the decision to implement the PSBB, transition, and adaptation to new habits involved various parties. According to him, the city government always asks for the consideration of experts in controlling the Covid-19 case. In addition, the municipal government will also consider other aspects before making policies, such as the imposition of curfews for almost all types of businesses.
"Now there must be a change in behavior, a new life. Health protocol must remain at the forefront, "he said.
Meanwhile, the Deputy Mayor of Surabaya, Whisnu Sakti Buana stated that the City of Heroes is adapting to new habits. "We must continue to use this period as a transitional period. This means that it is not standardized that the transition period is 14 days. As soon as the PSBB opened on June 8, what we should understand is that we are heading for a transition period. We have to enforce the health protocol as hard as possible, ”explained the man who is also Deputy Chair of the Surabaya City Covid-19 Task Force.
Pros Cons of Perwali
After the PSBB, the Mayor of Surabaya, Tri Rismaharini, signed Mayor Regulation Number 33 of 2020 concerning Amendments to the Regulation of the Mayor of Surabaya Number 28 of 2020 concerning Guidelines for the New Normal Order in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) Pandemic Conditions on July 13. Unlike the previous rules, he obliged people outside Surabaya Raya to bring a letter or test result swab test if you want to enter the City of Heroes. This Perwali has been active since July 13, 2020.
Head of the Surabaya Civil Service Police Unit (Satpol PP), Eddy Christijanto stated that guardianship does not apply to residents who live in “commuter” and “anglomeration” areas or areas that are one unit with Surabaya, namely Lamongan, Pasuruan, Mojokerto, Gresik, and Sidoarjo districts. . To control crowds, he continued, Satpol PP will target crowded places such as food stalls, coffee shops, and public entertainment recreation areas (RHU).
"There were many places that we raided the curfew, the result was many violations. For RHU who violate, we will evaluate their operational permits, "he said.
Deputy Mayor of Surabya, Whisnu Sakti Buana, reminded businesses to comply with health protocols. According to him, the economy in the city of Surabaya must run even though slowly. However, a number of business sectors, such as shopping centers and restaurants, have not yet been able to step up.
"Economic movements should not be opened widely. The movement of society must also be limited, while we are heading towards new normal, "He said, Thursday, June 29, 2020.
Deputy Chairperson, for the R&D and IT sector of the East Java Indonesian Hotel and Restaurant Association (PHRI), Agoes Tinus Lis Indrianto, understands what the government is worried about. A number of hotels and restaurants under PHRI have not been able to meet the minimum standard of health protocols. "So far, what is ready is certain hotels, especially those with 4 stars and above," he said.
That is because, Agoes hopes that the government will provide a stimulus to restaurant and hotel entrepreneurs so that they can rebuild public trust. Currently the hotel occupancy rate only reaches 20 to 30 percent of the available room capacity.
Epidemiologist Unair Windhu Purnomo reminded local governments to be careful before opening the economic taps of residents. The reason is, Perwali Surabaya Number 33/2020 is still fragile to become a bulwark against the transmission of the corona virus. Instead of providing a strong legal instrument, Chapter XI Article 34 only regulates the matter of administrative sanctions against violators.
Based on the regulation, sanctions for violators are only in the form of verbal or written warnings, confiscation of identity cards (KTP), or revocation of licenses. According to Windhu, the sanctions contained in the mayor's regulation should be heavier considering the lack of discipline among residents. "The fines should be applied, even though the amount will not be the same. Such sanctions in other countries can have a deterrent effect, ”said Windhu.
Deputy Chairman of the Public Relations of the Surabaya City Covid-19 Task Force, M. Fikser, stated that Perwali No. 33 was intended to encourage community involvement in carrying out health protocols. Therefore, Mayor Tri Risma did not only include administrative sanctions. Meanwhile, fines were not chosen because they consider economic factors.
"We have implemented social sanctions such as helping officers to provide food to people living in Liponsos, taking ID cards, and the toughest thing is revoking business permits for companies proven to have violated health protocols," explained Fikser.
"Revocation of business permits must get a recommendation from the Satpol PP because they are officers of guardianship and regional regulations. Currently, the Satpol PP team also continues to monitor companies in Surabaya, "he added.
Previously, Windhu and a survey team from the Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya found that most residents did not adhere to health protocols. This is what later became one of the reasons for the emergence of new clusters and the increase in the number of positive cases in Surabaya. Based on the survey findings, it was found that there are still many traditional markets and stalls that do not apply health protocols, such as wearing masks and maintaining a distance of more than 1 meter.
The survey itself was conducted in two stages, namely on 4-8 May 2020 and 19-23 May 2020. The data collection method was carried out online for residents who live in East Java. The final statistical test was performed using the Chi Square Correction formula.
In the first phase, the survey was attended by 2,834 respondents from 38 districts / cities in East Java. With the domination of residents from Surabaya Raya (56.6 percent). The survey results show that as many as 12.8 percent of schools, campuses and course places remain operational during the pandemic. Meanwhile, 84.6 percent of the people who carry out activities do not wear masks and 90.6 do not maintain a safe distance.
Similar conditions occur in stalls and cafes. In fact, according to Windhu, the results of the second phase survey which was attended by 3,407 respondents in 38 districts / cities in East Java were not much different. The community is considered not yet disciplined in applying social restrictions. This is reflected in the number of positive cases, which is currently the highest recorded in Indonesia.
"Surabaya is now a city that has attack rate highest in Indonesia. The value is around 150 per 100,000 population. Attack rate this increased by 75% during the transition period and the PSBB was no longer enforced in Surabaya. Of course, the high risk of infection is a major factor in East Java becoming the epicenter of Covid-19 in Indonesia, "explained Windhu.
The man who also serves as Chair of the PSBB Advocacy Team & Covid-19 Surveillance for the Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, revealed that one of the factors in the high risk of infection in Surabaya is due to the population density which reaches 8,600 people per square kilometer.
What to do?
To be able to suppress the spread of Covid-19 in Greater Surabaya and East Java, Windhu recommended that local governments impose strict sanctions against violators of health protocols and carry out massive screening. In addition, he hopes that the government will create a legal umbrella to increase the capacity of hospitals. According to Windhu, in a day rapid test which was done in East Java was classified as good, reaching 4500 times.
"Even though it is not in accordance with WHO standards, what the government has done is good enough," he said.
Mass inspection, he continued, should be 1000 people per 1 million population. With a total population of 40,821 million people in East Java, the local government must try to screen 40 thousand times a day. Most importantly, according to him, local governments focus on research results related to epidemology, health systems, and health protocols before making policies.
Windhu also suggested that the city government provide a special Covid-19 hospital. This is important to simplify the medical process. "Surabaya has two hospitals, namely RS. Soewandhi and RS. Bhakti Dharma Husada. "One can choose which one should be a special Covid-19 hospital," he said.
Another way that the government should consider is restricting community activities through the Large-Scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy, both for the province or the island of Java. This step is considered appropriate to limit the movement of people from the red zone to the green zone.
"So far, green areas have returned to yellow because there is indeed a movement from the red zone to that area. This should not be allowed, "said Windhu.
If this is done, then President Joko Widodo's order on Thursday, 25 June can be achieved. Previously, Jokowi ordered all elements to work together to control the spread of the corona virus by conducting massive tests, aggressive tracking, treatment and independent isolation of patients without complaints. "I think the President's message is for control, not for decreasing numbers. Because if it decreases, no need rapid test, there will be no new cases found, "he explained.
The Deputy Mayor of Surabaya, Whisnu Sakti Buana is optimistic that he can achieve the target set by President Jokowi. The municipal government, according to him, will optimize the role of Kampung Tangguh. His party also did not rule out the possibility of re-applying the PSBB.
Meanwhile, the Governor of East Java, Khofifah Indar Parawansa, stated that he would try his best to reduce the number of Covid-19 transmission in the three red zones, namely Surabaya, Gresik Regency and Pasuruan City. Besides involving all elements in society, according to him, all policies of the East Java Provincial Government refer to data and facts in the field.
"Including at the level of government itself. From the central government, down to the provincial level and continuing to districts / cities to villages, it must be linear. It cannot be different and individually, "he said.
Currently, the East Java Provincial Government is making lanterns for Covid-19 checks for road users in front of the Grahadi State Building, Surabaya. They also set up hand washing facilities around the area. (Yovinus Guntur W)